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高中英语语法学习窍门

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  一.关系代词的用法: 关系代词指代先行词

  在定语从句中作主语

  在定语从句中作动词的宾语或者介词的宾语, 介词在后

  指人

  that / who

  that / who / whom

  指物

  that / which

  that / which

  上表中黑框内的关系代词可以省略; 在口语及非正式文体中whom常被who所替代; 另外, 关系代词whose表示 “…(先行词)的”

  二.示例:

  1.关系代词在定语从句中作主语

  a. Do you know the man that / who came to see Xiao Yang this morning ?

  b. This is a book that / which tells about space rocket.

  2.关系代词在定语从句中作动词的宾语

  a. The comrade ( that / who / whom ) they came to visit is a scientist.

  b. I will never forget the day ( that / which ) we spent in the countryside.

  3.关系代词在定语从句中作介词的宾语, 介词在后

  a. This is the house ( that / which ) he was born in.

  b. The person ( that / who / whom ) you should write to is Mr Ball.

  c. The man ( that / who / whom ) you talked with is our English teacher.

  4.whose引导的定语从句

  a. I know a lady whose husband is a Nobel Prize winner.

  b. The child whose mother died in the fire is now an engineer in our company.

  c. He is living in a house whose windows are painted white.

  三.应注意的问题:

  1.指物时, 关系代词只用that而不用which的情况:

  ①.先行词被最高级或the only, the very, the same等修饰时

  a. This is the best play that was written by Jack.

  b. He is the only person that I can trust.

  ②.先行词被序数词或the last等词修饰时

  a. This is the first car that arrived this morning.

  ③.先行词为all, everything, nothing, something, anything等不定代词时或被不定代词all, any, no等修饰时

  a. All the people that come from the country work much harder.

  b. This is all that I can tell you.

  ④.人+动物或事物共同作为先行词时

  a. My father and Mr Brown talked of things and persons that they remembered for about an hour.

  ⑤.句中又有which作为疑问词出现时

  a. Which is the train that goes to Beijing ?

  2.关系代词who, which, that在定语从句中作主语时, 要注意定语从句中的主谓一致问题. 因为who / that / which指代先行词, 所以定语从句的谓语与先行词保持一致即可

  a. I came to get the book that was left in the classroom.

  b. I came to get the books that were left in the classroom.

  关系副词引导的定语从句

  一.关系副词的用法: when在定语从句中作地点状语; where在定语从句中作地点状语; why在定语从句中作原因状语

  二.示例:

  a. He was well at the time when I saw him.

  b. Let’s meet at the place where we met yesterday.

  c. This is the reason why I am in favor of the singer.

  三.应注意的问题:

  1.在某些表示时间的名词后的关系副词可省略, 这样的名词如: the time, every time, each time, the moment, the minute, the second等 (也有语法家认为是这些名词直接引导了时间状语从句)

  a. By the time ( when ) he was fourteen years old he had learned much English.

  介词+关系代词引导的定语从句

  一.说明: 关系代词在定语从句中作介词的宾语时, 介词可以位于关系代词之前, 从而构成介词+关系代词引导的定语从句

  二.这种定语从句中关系代词的用法: 在这种定语从句中, 关系代词只能用whom(指人)和which(指事物), 而不能使用that / who

  三.示例:

  a. This is the house in which he was born.

  b. The person to whom you should write is Mr Ball.

  c. The man with whom you talked is our English teacher.

  d. The gentleman, with whose daughter I worked, looked down upon woman.

  四.应注意的问题:

  1.关系代词前的介词可以是单个介词, 也可以是短语介词或类似短语介词的词组

  a. This is the house in which he was born.

  b. At five o’clock we reached the house, in front of which there is a big tree.

  c. At five o’clock we reached the mountain, at the foot of which lie some farmhouses.

  2.根据表达的需要, 介词之前还可以有其他词, 从而构成“名词或代词+介词+关系代词”引导的定语从句

  a. I used to live in a small room, the window of which faces the street.

  b. At the gate stood a group of students, some of whom are girls.

  3.介词若为短语动词中的介词, 则不可将介词拆开放在关系代词之前

  a. This is the magazine which you are looking for.( for不能放在which之前)

  b. The child whom Aunt Li takes care of is ill.( of不能放在whom之前)

  4.关系副词when / where / why常可与 “介词+关系代词”互换

  a. Do you remember the days when we were in Beijing? ( =in which we were in Beijing )

  b. Do you remember the park where we once played for a whole day?( =in which we once played for a whole day )

  c. This is the reason why he was absent yesterday. (= for which he was absent )

  限定性与非限定性定语从句

  一.两者的区别: 见下表

  形式

  作用

  译法

  限定性定语从句

  无逗号与主句分开

  修饰限定作用, 即不可缺少的定语

  其译文常位于先行词之前, 并体现“的”

  非限定性定语从句

  有逗号与主句分开

  附加、补充说明的作用, 若缺少它, 句意仍然完整

  常将其译成一个和主句并列的分句

  二.关系词的用法: 非限定性定语从句不能用that引导, 并且关系词在任何情况下都不能省略, 除此之外, 在关系词的使用上, 非限定性定语从句与限定性定语从句完全相同

  三.示例:

  a. My book, which is very old, is on the table.

  b. President Kennedy, who had heard of King before, was interested to meet him.

  c. His father, who is working in Beijing, is an engineer.

  d. The house, where he was born, has been destroyed in the earthquake.

  e. Mr. Smith, with whom you just talked, is our English teacher.

  f. The gentleman, with whose daughter I worked, looked down upon woman.

  四.应注意的问题:

  1.as / which都可以引导一个非限定性定语从句, as / which是关系代词, 指代主句中所提到的某种情况, 它们的不同点是:

  ①.as引导的这种定语从句位置比较灵活, 可位于句首, 句中, 句尾; 但which引导的这种定语从句只能位于主句之后

  ②. as还带有“正如, 正象”之意, 而which不含此意

  a. The earth is like a ball, as everyone knows.

  b. As everyone knows, the earth is like a ball.

  c. They said they were French, which wasn’t true.

  常见问题

  一.定语从句还原法: 试题中有很多有关定语从句的, 这类题往往需选择引导词部分. 做好这类题的关键首先是要有这样的观念: 定语从句应有完整而合理的句子成分. 基于这一点, 我们可以用“还原法”来检验定语从句是否正确, 即把定语从句还原成为一个简单句. 具体做法是:

  ①.第一步: 替换. 将关系代词直接替换成先行词, 如果是关系副词, 先替换成介词+关系代词, 再将关系代词替换成先行词

  ②.第二步: 调整, 即调整语序, 看能否构成一个合理的简单句

  例如, 还原以下例句a中的定语从句的过程是: 先将that / which替换成先行词the park, 再调整语序, 就能得到一个合理的简单句: We visited the park last year. 再如, 还原以下例句b中的定语从句的过程是: 先将where替换成in which, 再将which替换成先行词the park, 再调整语序, 就得到一个合理的简单句: We once played for a whole day in the park.

  a. Do you remember the park that / which we visited last year?

  b. Do you remember the park where we once played for a whole day?

  c. Do you still remember the days that / which we spent together ?

  d. Do you still remember the days when we were together?

  二.分隔定语从句: 定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后, 但有时也被分隔开来, 在阅读时要注意根据定语从句所表达的意思来分辨先行词是什么

  a. I was the only person in the office who was invited.

  b. He was the only one of the students who passed the GRE.

  ①.as引导的这种定语从句位置比较灵活, 可位于句首, 句中, 句尾; 但which引导的这种定语从句只能位于主句之后

  ②. as还带有“正如, 正象”之意, 而which不含此意

  a. The earth is like a ball, as everyone knows.

  b. As everyone knows, the earth is like a ball.

  c. They said they were French, which wasn’t true.

  常见问题

  一.定语从句还原法: 试题中有很多有关定语从句的, 这类题往往需选择引导词部分. 做好这类题的关键首先是要有这样的观念: 定语从句应有完整而合理的句子成分. 基于这一点, 我们可以用“还原法”来检验定语从句是否正确, 即把定语从句还原成为一个简单句. 具体做法是:

  ①.第一步: 替换. 将关系代词直接替换成先行词, 如果是关系副词, 先替换成介词+关系代词, 再将关系代词替换成先行词

  ②.第二步: 调整, 即调整语序, 看能否构成一个合理的简单句

  例如, 还原以下例句a中的定语从句的过程是: 先将that / which替换成先行词the park, 再调整语序, 就能得到一个合理的简单句: We visited the park last year. 再如, 还原以下例句b中的定语从句的过程是: 先将where替换成in which, 再将which替换成先行词the park, 再调整语序, 就得到一个合理的简单句: We once played for a whole day in the park.

  a. Do you remember the park that / which we visited last year?

  b. Do you remember the park where we once played for a whole day?

  c. Do you still remember the days that / which we spent together ?

  d. Do you still remember the days when we were together?

  二.分隔定语从句: 定语从句一般紧跟在先行词之后, 但有时也被分隔开来, 在阅读时要注意根据定语从句所表达的意思来分辨先行词是什么

  a. I was the only person in the office who was invited.

  b. He was the only one of the students who passed the GRE


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